El término mindfulness no tiene una traducción exacta al español. Puede definirse como una atención y conciencia plena del momento presente. Es decir, se trata de centrarse de un modo activo y reflexivo en el aquí y el ahora, en contraposición a la fantasía o el soñar despierto.
Sin embargo, para entender del todo este término, es preciso tener en cuenta que no se trata de una reflexión valorativa, sino tan solo contemplativa. Se trata de observar sin juzgar, sin crítica ni rechazo, sin valoración alguna, sino aceptando la experiencia tal y como está aconteciendo.
El mindfulness es una filosofía de vida procedente del budismo Zen. Es el ideal Zen de vivir en el momento presente. Este concepto ha sido adoptado por las psicoterapias de última generación, como la terapia de aceptación y compromiso, la terapia de conducta dialéctica, o la psicoterapia analítica funcional.
Elementos principales del mindfulness
Centrarse en el momento presente
Consiste en sentir las cosas tal y como están sucediendo, sin pretender ejercer ningún control sobre ellas. Es decir, la persona que usa esta técnica no se centra en un pensamiento para modificarlo, sino que se centra en un pensamiento, actividad, imagen mental, etc. en sí mismo, sin pretender cambiarlo ni hacerlo desaparecer. Eso ayuda a aceptar las experiencias tal y como son, sintiendo lo que sucede, sin huir, incluso aunque se trate de una emoción desagradable. Eso permite que lo que ha de suceder, suceda de un modo completo, dejando que cada experiencia sea vivida en su momento, en el presente.
Apertura a la experiencia y los hechos.
Consiste en centrarse en lo que se está viviendo, en vez de centrarse en las interpretaciones que pueden hacerse de dicha experiencia. La persona se centra en lo que siente y percibe, sin usar el lenguaje para interpretarlo o traducirlo, pues el lenguaje puede sustituir a lo real, lo hace uniforme y lo enmarca en cuadros predefinidos y estereotipados. Por tanto, la persona se limita a observar y sentir lo que aquello que observa le sugiere, dejando que unas sensaciones lleven a otras de un modo natural, sin ejercer control alguno.
Durante el mindfulness, la experiencia se acepta tal y como es, tanto si es positiva como si es negativa, tanto si es agradable como si resulta desagradable, aceptando las experiencias como naturales, como un observador que abriera tu mente y observara lo que en ella hay, sin valorar ni juzgar, sin decir "esto está bien" "esto está mal, "esto es horrible", "esto es maravillo", "esto es sucio"... Se acepta tanto la experiencia como las reacciones a ellas, considerándolas naturales y normales. Así pues, las emociones negativas se ven como normales, no como algo horrible de lo que hay que huir, sino como parte de una experiencia humana que es necesario vivir.
Elección de las experiencias.
Las personas eligen con qué experiencias quieren usar esta técnica, es decir, eligen en qué desean centrarse. Una vez que han elegido la situación, han de vivirla tal y como es, aceptando todo lo que acontezca (las emociones, ideas, imágenes mentales, deseos, etc. que surjan durante la experiencia).
Renunciar al control
La aceptación implica enunciar al control. En vez de tratar de controlar las reacciones (como llanto, etc.) o emociones, debe experimentarlas tal y como se producen. Es decir, el objetivo no es reducir (controlar) el malestar (ira, tristeza, culpa, miedo...) sino experimentarlos tal y como aparecen.
Así pues, las técnicas de mindfulness pretenden lograr que la persona se deje llevar por sus sensaciones y emociones, dejando que actúen de forma natural. Esto permite que determinadas emociones, cambios fisiológicos, etc. que operan de forma autónoma se regulen de acuerdo con sus propios sistemas naturales de autorregulación. Cuando se intenta bloquear o controlar las emociones, se alteran los mecanismos de autorregulación porque no se experimentan por completo, de forma que no se dispone de toda la información necesaria, porque cuando una persona intenta controlar o bloquear una emoción, deja de sentirla de un modo real y completo. Esto no significa que ciertas técnicas psicológicas destinadas al manejo de emociones y comportamientos no sean eficaces. De hecho, las técnicas cognitivas pueden resultar mucho más eficaces después de usar el mindfulness, cuando una persona se ha permitido experimentar la situación por completo, y ha dejado que acuda a su mente toda emoción, idea, imagen mental, etc., las cuales le proporcionarán una valiosa información que podrá utilizar después para trabajar en la superación de un problema emocional.
Entre las aplicaciones de esta técnicas, la psicóloga Marsha Linehan ha desarrolla la terapia de conducta dialéctica, basada en mindfulness para el tratamiento del trastorno de la personalidad límite (Linehan, 1993). También se ha utilizado como parte de la terapia cognitiva de la depresión (Sherer-Dickson, 2004).
“Mindfulness” is the English transla tion of the Pali word sati. Sati is an activity. What exactly is that? There can be no precise answer, at least not in words. Words are devised by the symbolic levels of the mind, and they describe those realities with which symbolic thinking deals. Mindfulness is pre-symbolic. It is not shackled to logic. Nevertheless, mindfulness can be experienced—rather easily—and it can be de scribed, as long as you keep in mind that the words are only fingers pointing at the moon. They are not the thing itself. The actual experi ence lies beyond the words and above the symbols. Mindfulness could be described in completely different terms than will be used here, and each description could still be correct.
Mindfulness is a subtle process that you are using at this very moment. The fact that this process lies above and beyond words does not make it unreal—quite the reverse. Mindfulness is the reality that gives rise to words; the words that follow are simply pale shadows of reality. So, it is important to understand that everything that fol lows here is analogy. It is not going to make perfect sense. It will always remain beyond verbal logic. But you can experience it. The meditation technique calledvipassana (insight) that was introduced by the Buddha about twenty-five centuries ago is a set of mental activities specifically aimed at experiencing a state of uninterrupted mindfulness.
When you first become aware of something, there is a fleeting instant of pure awareness just before you conceptualize the thing, before you identify it. That is a state of awareness. Ordinarily, this state is short-lived. It is that flashing split second just as you focus your eyes on the thing, just as you focus your mind on the thing, just before you objectify it, clamp down on it mentally, and segregate it from the rest of existence. It takes place just before you start thinking about it—before your mind says, “Oh, it’s a dog.” That flowing, soft-focused moment of pure awareness is mindfulness. In that brief flashing mind-moment you experience a thing as an un-thing. You experience a softly flowing moment of pure experience that is inter locked with the rest of reality, not separate from it. Mindfulness is very much like what you see with your peripheral vision as opposed to the hard focus of normal or central vision. Yet this moment of soft, unfocused awareness contains a very deep sort of knowing that is lost as soon as you focus your mind and objectify the object into a thing. In the process of ordinary perception, the mindfulness step is so fleeting as to be unobservable. We have developed the habit of squandering our attention on all the remaining steps, focusing on the perception, cognizing the perception, labeling it, and most of all, getting involved in a long string of symbolic thought about it. That original moment of mindfulness is rapidly passed over. It is the pur pose of vipassana meditation to train us to prolong that moment of awareness.
When this mindfulness is prolonged by using proper techniques, you find that this experience is profound, and it changes your entire view of the universe. This state of perception has to be learned, how ever, and it takes regular practice. Once you learn the technique, you will find that mindfulness has many interesting aspects.
Mindfulness is mirror-thought. It reflects only what is presently hap pening and in exactly the way it is happening. There are no biases.
Mindfulness is nonjudgmental observation. It is that ability of the mind to observe without criticism. With this ability, one sees things without condemnation or judgment. One is surprised by nothing. One simply takes a balanced interest in things exactly as they are in their natural states. One does not decide and does not judge. One just observes. Please note that when we say, “One does not decide and does not judge,” what we mean is that the meditator observes experiences very much like a scientist observing an object under a microscope without any preconceived notions, only to see the object exactly as it is. In the same way, the meditator notices imperma nence, unsatisfactoriness, and selflessness.
It is psychologically impossible for us to objectively observe what is going on within us if we do not at the same time accept the occur rence of our various states of mind. This is especially true with un pleasant states of mind. In order to observe our own fear, we must accept the fact that we are afraid. We can’t examine our own depression without accepting it fully. The same is true for irritation and agitation, frustration, and all those other uncomfortable emotional states. You can’t examine something fully if you are busy rejecting its existence. Whatever experience we may be having, mindfulness just accepts it. It is simply another of life’s occurrences, just another thing to be aware of. No pride, no shame, nothing personal at stake—what is there, is there.
Mindfulness is an impartial watchfulness. It does not take sides. It does not get hung up in what is perceived. It just perceives. Mind fulness does not get infatuated with the good mental states. It does not try to sidestep the bad mental states. There is no clinging to the pleasant, no fleeing from the unpleasant. Mindfulness treats all expe riences equally, all thoughts equally, all feelings equally. Nothing is suppressed. Nothing is repressed. Mindfulness does not play favorites.
Mindfulness is nonconceptual awareness. Another English term for sati is “bare attention.” It is not thinking. It does not get involved with thought or concepts. It does not get hung up on ideas or opin ions or memories. It just looks. Mindfulness registers experiences, but it does not compare them. It does not label them or categorize them. It just observes everything as if it were occurring for the first time. It is not analysis, which is based on reflection and memory. It is, rather, the direct and immediate experiencing of whatever is happening, without the medium of thought. It comes before thought in the perceptual process.
Mindfulness is present-time awareness. It takes place in the here and now. It is the observance of what is happening right now, in the present moment. It stays forever in the present, perpetually on the crest of the ongoing wave of passing time. If you are remembering your second-grade teacher, that is memory. When you then become aware that you are remembering your second-grade teacher, that is mindfulness. If you then conceptualize the process and say to your self, “Oh, I am remembering,” that is thinking.
Mindfulness is non-egotistic alertness. It takes place without ref erence to self. With mindfulness one sees all phenomena without references to concepts like “me,” “my,” or “mine.” For example, suppose there is pain in your left leg. Ordinary consciousness would say, “I have a pain.” Using mindfulness, one would simply note the sensation as a sensation. One would not tack on that extra concept “I.” Mindfulness stops one from adding anything to perception, or subtracting anything from it. One does not enhance anything. One does not emphasize anything. One just observes exactly what is there without distortion.
Mindfulness is awareness of change. It is observing the passing flow of experience. It is watching things as they are changing. It is seeing the birth, growth, and maturity of all phenomena. It is watch ing phenomena decay and die. Mindfulness is watching things moment by moment, continuously. It is observing all phenomena— physical, mental, or emotional—whatever is presently taking place in the mind. One just sits back and watches the show. Mindfulness is the observance of the basic nature of each passing phenomenon. It is watching the thing arising and passing away. It is seeing how that thing makes us feel and how we react to it. It is observing how it affects others. In mindfulness, one is an unbiased observer whose sole job is to keep track of the constantly passing show of the uni verse within. Please note that last point. In mindfulness, one watches the universe within. The meditator who is developing mindfulness is not concerned with the external universe. It is there, but in medita tion one’s field of study is one’s own experience, one’s thoughts, one’s feelings, and one’s perceptions. In meditation, one is one’s own laboratory. The universe within has an enormous fund of information containing the reflection of the external world and much more. An examination of this material leads to total freedom.
Mindfulness is participatory observation. The meditator is both participant and observer at one and the same time. If one watches one’s emotions or physical sensations, one is feeling them at that very same moment. Mindfulness is not an intellectual awareness. It is just awareness. The mirror-thought metaphor breaks down here. Mindfulness is objective, but it is not cold or unfeeling. It is the wake ful experience of life, an alert participation in the ongoing process of living. Mindfulness is extremely difficult to define in words—not because it is complex, but because it is too simple and open. The same problem crops up in every area of human experience. The most basic concept is always the most difficult to pin down. Look at a dictionary and you will see a clear example. Long words generally have concise definitions, but for short basic words like theand is, definitions can be a page long. And in physics, the most difficult functions to describe are the most basic—those that deal with the most fundamental realities of quantum mechanics. Mindfulness is a pre-symbolic function. You can play with word symbols all day long and you will never pin it down completely. We can never fully ex press what it is. However, we can say what it does.
There are three fundamental activities of mindfulness. We can use these activities as functional definitions of the term: (1) mindfulness reminds us of what we are supposed to be doing; (2) it sees things as they really are; and (3) it sees the true nature of all phenomena. Let’s examine these definitions in greater detail.
1. Mindfulness reminds you of what you are supposed to be doing. In meditation, you put your attention on one item. When your mind wanders from this focus, it is mindfulness that reminds you that your mind is wandering and what you are supposed to be doing. It is mindfulness that brings your mind back to the object of medita tion. All of this occurs instantaneously and without internal dia logue. Mindfulness is not thinking. Repeated practice in meditation establishes this function as a mental habit, which then carries over into the rest of your life. A serious meditator pays bare attention to occurrences all the time, day in, day out, whether formally sitting in meditation or not. This is a very lofty ideal toward which those who meditate may be working for a period of years or even decades. Our habit of getting stuck in thought is years old, and that habit will hang on in the most tenacious manner. The only way out is to be equally persistent in the cultivation of constant mindfulness. When mindfulness is present, you will notice when you become stuck in your thought patterns. It is that very noticing which allows you to back out of the thought process and free yourself from it. Mindful ness then returns your attention to its proper focus. If you are medi tating at that moment, then your focus will be the formal object of meditation. If you are not in formal meditation, it will be just a pure application of bare attention itself, just a pure noticing of whatever comes up without getting involved—“Ah, this comes up . . . and now this, and now this . . . and now this.”
Mindfulness is at one and the same time both bare attention itself and the function of reminding us to pay bare attention if we have ceased to do so. Bare attention is noticing. It reestablishes itself sim ply by noticing that it has not been present. As soon as you are notic ing that you have not been noticing, then by definition you are noticing and then you are back again to paying bare attention.
Mindfulness creates its own distinct feeling in consciousness. It has a flavor—a light, clear, energetic flavor. By comparison, con scious thought is heavy, ponderous, and picky.
But here again, these are just words. Your own practice will show you the difference. Then you will probably come up with your own words, and the words used here will become superfluous. Remem ber, practice is the thing.
2. Mindfulness sees things as they really are. Mindfulness adds nothing to perception and it subtracts nothing. It distorts nothing. It is bare attention and just looks at whatever comes up. Conscious thought pastes things over our experience, loads us down with con cepts and ideas, immerses us in a churning vortex of plans and wor ries, fears and fantasies. When mindful, you don’t play that game. You just notice exactly what arises in the mind, then you notice the next thing. “Ah, this . . . and this . . . and now this.” It is really very simple.
3. Mindfulness sees the true nature of phenomena. Mindfulness and only mindfulness can perceive that the three prime characteristics that Buddhism teaches are the deepest truths of existence. In Pali these three are called anicca (impermanence), dukkha (unsatisfactori ness), and anatta (selflessness—the absence of a permanent, un changing entity that we call soul or self). These truths are not presented in Buddhist teaching as dogmas demanding blind faith. The Buddhists feel that these truths are universal and self-evident to anyone who cares to investigate in a proper way. Mindfulness is that method of investigation. Mindfulness alone has the power to reveal the deepest level of reality available to human observation. At this level of inspection, one sees the following: (a) all conditioned things are inherently transitory; (b) every worldly thing is, in the end, unsat isfying; and (c) there are really no entities that are unchanging or permanent, only processes.
Mindfulness works like an electron microscope. That is, it oper ates on so fine a level that one can actually directly perceive those realities that are at best theoretical constructs to the conscious thought process. Mindfulness actually sees the impermanent charac ter of every perception. It sees the transitory and passing nature of everything that is perceived. It also sees the inherently unsatisfactory nature of all conditioned things. It sees that there is no sense grab bing on to any of these passing shows. Peace and happiness cannot be found that way. And finally, mindfulness sees the inherent selflessness of all phenomena. It sees the way that we have arbitrarily selected a certain bundle of perceptions, chopped them off from the rest of the surging flow of experience, and then conceptualized them as separate, enduring entities. Mindfulness actually sees these things. It does not think about them; it sees them directly.
When it is fully developed, mindfulness sees these three attri butes of existence directly, instantaneously, and without the inter vening medium of conscious thought. In fact, even the attributes that we just covered are inherently unified. They don’t really exist as sep arate items. They are purely the result of our struggle to take this fundamentally simple process called mindfulness and express it in the cumbersome and inadequate thought symbols of the conscious level. Mindfulness is a process, but it does not take place in steps. It is a holistic process that occurs as a unit: you notice your own lack of mindfulness; and that noticing itself is a result of mindfulness; and mindfulness is bare attention; and bare attention is noticing things exactly as they are without distortion; and the way they are is impermanent (anicca), unsatisfactory (dukkha), and selfless (anatta). It all takes place in the space of a few mind-moments. This does not mean, however, that you will instantly attain liberation (freedom from all human weaknesses) as a result of your first moment of mindfulness. Learning to integrate this material into your conscious life is quite another process. And learning to prolong this state of mindfulness is still another. They are joyous processes, however, and they are well worth the effort.